Bataille du Gujarat ou Kayadara, 1178

Bataille du Gujarat ou Kayadara, 1178

Bataille du Gujarat ou Kayadara, 1178

La bataille du Gujarat ou Kayadara (1178) fut une défaite subie par Muhammad de Ghur lors de sa première campagne contre un souverain hindou en Inde. La première campagne de Mahomet avait été menée contre les dirigeants musulmans de Multan en 1175 et s'était soldée par une victoire. En 1178, il tourna vers le sud et mena son armée de Multan à Uch, puis à travers le désert vers la capitale du Gujarat, Anhilwara (aujourd'hui Patan).

Gujaray était gouverné par le jeune Raja Bhimdev II (gouverné 1178-1241), membre de la dynastie Solanki (l'une des nombreuses dynasties Chalukya), bien que l'âge du Raja signifiait que l'armée était commandée par sa mère Naikidevi. L'armée de Mahomet avait beaucoup souffert lors de la marche à travers le désert, et Naikidevi lui infligea une défaite majeure au village de Kayadra (près du mont Abu, à une quarantaine de kilomètres au nord-est d'Anhilwara). L'armée d'invasion a subi de lourdes pertes pendant la bataille, ainsi que lors de la retraite à travers le désert jusqu'à Multan.

Muhammad de Ghur n'est jamais revenu au Gujarat. Une armée dirigée par Qutb al-din Aibek, son adjoint en Inde, envahit vers 1195-97 et pilla la capitale, mais retourna ensuite à Delhi. Le Gujarat n'a été annexé par le Sultanat de Delhi qu'en 1297.


Bataille du Gujarat ou Kayadara, 1178 - Histoire

La bataille de Kayadara, Gujarat (1178) fut une défaite subie par Muhammad de Ghor lors de sa première campagne contre un souverain indien en Inde. Le Gujarat était dirigé par le jeune souverain indien Bhimdev Solanki II (gouverné de 1178 à 1241), bien que l'âge du Raja signifiait que l'armée était commandée par sa mère Naikidevi. L'armée de Mahomet avait beaucoup souffert pendant la marche à travers le désert, et Naikidevi lui infligea une défaite majeure au village de Kayadara (près du mont Abu, à une quarantaine de kilomètres au nord-est d'Anhilwara).

Option correcte : B

La bataille de Kayadara, Gujarat (1178) fut une défaite subie par Muhammad de Ghor lors de sa première campagne contre un souverain indien en Inde. Le Gujarat était dirigé par le jeune souverain indien Bhimdev Solanki II (gouverné de 1178 à 1241), bien que l'âge du Raja signifiait que l'armée était commandée par sa mère Naikidevi. L'armée de Mahomet avait beaucoup souffert pendant la marche à travers le désert, et Naikidevi lui infligea une défaite majeure au village de Kayadara (près du mont Abu, à une quarantaine de kilomètres au nord-est d'Anhilwara).

L'armée indienne sous le sultanat de Delhi a été fortement influencée par les invasions étrangères. C'est sur la base d'une telle force militaire qu'Alauddin Khalji a repoussé avec succès les Mongols à deux reprises. Son succès militaire était dû à la création d'une grande armée permanente directement recrutée et payée par l'État. Il révoqua toutes les subventions accordées par les précédents sultans, introduisit un contrôle des prix couvrant la quasi-totalité du marché et rationna les céréales.

Option correcte : B

L'armée indienne sous le sultanat de Delhi a été fortement influencée par les invasions étrangères. C'est sur la base d'une telle force militaire qu'Alauddin Khalji a repoussé les Mongols avec succès à deux reprises. Son succès militaire était dû à la création d'une grande armée permanente directement recrutée et payée par l'État. Il révoqua toutes les subventions accordées par les précédents sultans, introduisit un contrôle des prix couvrant la quasi-totalité du marché et rationna les céréales.

Ala-ud-din Khilji s'est décrit comme le deuxième Alexandre à lui tout seul. Il rêvait de fonder un empire mondial, qui est représenté dans la monnaie de son époque.

Option correcte : B

Ala-ud-din Khilji s'est décrit comme le deuxième Alexandre à lui tout seul. Il rêvait de fonder un empire mondial, qui est représenté dans la monnaie de son époque.

  1. Le Panch Mahal
  2. Moti Masjid
  3. Tombeau de Salim Chishti
  4. Le Palais Mariam

Le Moti Masjid à Agra a été construit par Shah Jahan. L'autre Moti Masjid est une grande mosquée de marbre blanc construite par l'empereur moghol Aurangzeb dans le complexe du Fort Rouge à Delhi, en Inde, de 1659 à 1660.

Option correcte : B

Le Moti Masjid à Agra a été construit par Shah Jahan. L'autre Moti Masjid est une grande mosquée de marbre blanc construite par l'empereur moghol Aurangzeb dans le complexe du Fort Rouge à Delhi, en Inde, de 1659 à 1660.

  1. Le Panch Mahal
  2. Moti Masjid
  3. Tombeau de Salim Chishti
  4. Le Palais Mariam

Le Moti Masjid à Agra a été construit par Shah Jahan. L'autre Moti Masjid est une grande mosquée de marbre blanc construite par l'empereur moghol Aurangzeb dans le complexe du Fort Rouge à Delhi, en Inde, de 1659 à 1660.

Option correcte : B

Le Moti Masjid à Agra a été construit par Shah Jahan. L'autre Moti Masjid est une grande mosquée de marbre blanc construite par l'empereur moghol Aurangzeb dans le complexe du Fort Rouge à Delhi, en Inde, de 1659 à 1660.


Contexte de la bataille : Ghurids fanatiques contre Chalukyas en infériorité numérique

Après être devenue reine, Naiki Devi s'est immédiatement occupée de l'administration et des affaires militaires du royaume. Pendant ce temps, Moh Ghori a capturé multan et avait déjà établi l'empire Ghurid sur l'Afghanistan.

Basé à Multan, l'ambitieux Ghori a décidé d'envahir l'Inde pour s'enrichir. Motivé par les histoires de raids menés par Moh Ghazni plusieurs années avant qu'il ne marche avec une énorme armée vers Uch, la partie sud de la province pakistanaise du Pendjab. On pense également que l'objectif principal de Moh Ghori était de piller le temple de Somnath comme Ghazni l'avait fait plusieurs années auparavant.

De là, ils ont pu traverser le désert et ont commencé à marcher vers Anhilwara (capitale du royaume Chalukyan). Le royaume Chalukyan à cette époque se composait du Gujarat et du Rajasthan.

Ghori était bien conscient du fait que les Chalukyan n'avaient pas de roi et étaient vulnérables aux attaques. Il considérait que la reine hindoue était faible et facile à vaincre car il avait une armée beaucoup plus grande à sa disposition. Mais il allait bientôt lui prouver qu'il s'était trompé.

Pendant ce temps, Naiki Devi a demandé l'aide des dirigeants féodaux voisins, à savoir le dirigeant de Jalor Chahamana Kirtipala, le dirigeant d'Arbuda Paramara Dharavarsha et le dirigeant de Naddula Chahamana Kelhanadeva.

L'armée Chalukyan était en infériorité numérique et pour contrer cela, Naiki Devi a choisi le terrain accidenté de Gadaraghatta, une zone située au pied du mont Abu près du village de Kasahrada. Cela a été choisi par elle en raison des passages de montagne étroits qui rendaient difficile pour les envahisseurs d'attaquer avec toute leur force et diluaient leur attaque.

L'armée de Moh Ghori était pleine de soldats expérimentés et se composait de nomades des steppes qui étaient d'excellents archers, d'une cavalerie blindée supérieure et de chevaux des steppes d'Asie centrale qui fournissaient vitesse et endurance à l'armée de Ghori. En plus d'avoir un avantage technique, Moh Ghori et ses soldats étaient également motivés par le zèle religieux. Eux, comme tous les autres envahisseurs islamiques, étaient obsédés par le meurtre des infidèles (non musulmans) et la conversion de l'ensemble des terres non musulmanes en une terre gouvernée par l'islam.

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Dynastie Ghuride

Vers 1173 de notre ère, Muhammad Ghori monta sur le trône à Ghazni tandis que son frère aîné régnait à Ghur. Étant un dirigeant très ambitieux, il ne se contentait pas de Ghazni et voulait étendre son empire pour obtenir plus de pouvoir et de contrôle. Il était bien conscient des faiblesses politiques, religieuses, sociales et militaires de l'Inde, ainsi que de l'énorme richesse de l'Inde. Il est pertinent de noter que contrairement à Mahmud de Ghazni, Muhammad Ghori était très intéressé par l'établissement d'un empire permanent en Inde et pas simplement par le pillage de ses richesses.

Muhammad Ghori (c.1173-1206 CE)

Il était le véritable fondateur de l'Empire islamique en Inde. Il y a eu jusqu'à sept invasions majeures de Muhammad Ghori contre l'Inde, et il est surtout sorti vainqueur. Vers 1175 de notre ère, il dirigea son première expédition contre Multan, ce qui a été largement couronné de succès. Dans la même campagne, il a capturé Uchch des Bhatti Rajputs et y a établi un fort.

En c.1178 CE, il a de nouveau marché pour conquérir le Gujarat mais le souverain Chalukya du Gujarat, Solanki Bhima II, l'a vaincu au Bataille de Kayadara. Mais cette défaite n'a pas découragé Muhammad Ghori et il a réalisé la nécessité de créer une base appropriée au Pendjab avant de s'aventurer sur la conquête de l'Inde.

Les Bataille du Gujarat ou Kayadara (1178) était une défaite subie par Muhammad Ghori lors de sa première campagne contre un dirigeant hindou en Inde. En 1178, il tourna vers le sud et mena son armée de Multan à Uch puis à travers le désert vers la capitale du Gujarat de Anhilwara (Patan moderne).

Le Gujarat était dirigé par le jeune Raja Bhimdev II (1178-1241), membre de la dynastie Solanki (l'une des nombreuses dynasties Chalukya), bien que l'âge du Raja signifiait que l'armée était commandée par son mère Naikidevi. L'armée de Mahomet avait beaucoup souffert lors de la marche à travers le désert et Naikidevi lui a infligé une défaite majeure au village de Kayadra (près du mont Abu, à une quarantaine de kilomètres au nord-est d'Anhilwara). L'armée d'invasion a subi de lourdes pertes pendant la bataille, ainsi que lors de la retraite à travers le désert jusqu'à Multan.

Mohammed de Ghur jamais retourné à Gujarat. Une armée dirigée par Qutab al-din Aibek, son adjoint en Inde, envahit vers 1195-97 et pilla la capitale, mais retourna ensuite à Delhi. Le Gujarat n'a été annexé par le Sultanat de Delhi qu'en 1297.

Première bataille de terrain (c.1191 CE)

La possession de Ghori du Pendjab et sa tentative d'avancer dans le Gangetic Doab l'ont amené à un conflit direct avec un souverain Rajput, Prithviraj Chauhan, qui avait déjà envahi de nombreux petits États à Rajputana, capturé Delhi, et voulait étendre avec les revendications de Tabarhinda (Bhatinda). Lors de la première bataille livrée à Tarain, l'armée de Ghori a été mise en déroute et il a échappé de justesse à la mort. Prithviraj a conquis Bhatinda mais il n'a fait aucun effort pour la garnir efficacement. Cela a permis à Ghori de rassembler ses forces et de se préparer pour une autre avancée en Inde. Il a ainsi lancé une campagne contre les possessions ghaznavides au Pendjab. En conséquence, il a conquis Peshawar vers 1179, le Sindh vers 1182 CE, le Pendjab et Lahore en 1190 CE.

Deuxième bataille de terrain (vers 1192 CE)

Cette bataille est considérée comme l'un des tournants de l'histoire indienne, car Prithviraj Chauhan a été vaincu et Ghori a émergé avec succès. Les forces turques sous Ghori étaient bien organisées avec une cavalerie rapide. Les forces indiennes volumineuses ne faisaient pas le poids face à l'organisation, à l'habileté et à la vitesse supérieures de la cavalerie turque. Il est pertinent de noter que la cavalerie turque a utilisé deux technologies supérieures, à savoir l'utilisation de fers à cheval et l'utilisation de étriers en fer. Un grand nombre de soldats indiens ont été tués. Prithviraj s'échappe mais est capturé plus tard près de Saraswati.

Il a été autorisé à régner sur Ajmer pendant un certain temps car les pièces de monnaie de cette période portent la légende "Prithvirajadeva”d'un côté et les mots "Sri Muhammad Sam"d'un autre côté. Cependant, peu de temps après, Prithviraj a été exécuté pour complot. L'armée turque a capturé les forteresses de Hansi, Saraswati, Samana, Delhi et Ajmer.

Bataille de Chandwar (vers 1194 CE) : Ghori a vaincu Jaichandra (le souverain de Kannauj) de la dynastie Gahadavalas. Ainsi, les batailles de Tarain et de Chandwar ont jeté les bases de la domination turque dans le nord de l'Inde. Après cette invasion, Qutub-ud-din Aibak fut nommé vice-roi de Muhammad Ghori. Après cela, Ghori est retourné à Ghazni pour mener à bien ses conquêtes dans les frontières occidentales, laissant les affaires de l'Inde entre les mains du général esclave de confiance Qutab-ud-din Aibak, qui a poursuivi ses conquêtes en Inde.

Révolte de Khokhars (c.1205 CE): Ghori dut à nouveau venir en Inde pour écraser la révolte des Khokhars. Cependant, en 1206 CE, Ghori a été tué par quelqu'un près du district de Dhamyak de Jhelum (maintenant au Pakistan) alors qu'il retournait à Ghazni. Ce règne de l'Inde passa à Aibak, qui la fondation de la Dynastie des esclaves.


Naikidevi : la reine qui a vaincu Muhammad Ghori

Il est bien connu que Muhammad Ghori a vaincu Prithviraj Chauhan lors de la 2e bataille de Tarain en 1192 et a jeté les bases du sultanat de Delhi. Ce qui n'est pas si bien connu cependant, c'est le fait que 14 ans avant qu'il ne remporte cette bataille, il a été vaincu par une reine du Gujarat née à Goa – Naikidevi ! Bien que l'on sache peu de choses sur Naikidevi, nous n'avons même pas d'image de ce à quoi elle ressemblait - voici ce que nous savons.

Muhammad Ghori a été vaincu par une reine du Gujarat née à Goa, Naikidevi

Naikidevi était la veuve d'un roi Solanki (la dynastie est également appelée les Chalukyas du Gujarat) le roi Ajayapala qui a régné pendant une courte période de 4 ans à partir de 1171. Elle était la fille du souverain Kadamba Mahamandalesvara Permadi de Goa et après le mort de son mari, Naikidevi a été reine régente alors que son fils Mularaja II n'était qu'un enfant.

C'est durant sa courte régence que la reine entre dans l'histoire. On se souvient de Naikidevi comme de la femme qui a vaincu et renvoyé les armées d'invasion de Muhammad Ghori en 1178 de notre ère. Cette victoire est relatée par des chroniqueurs locaux hindous ainsi que musulmans.

Le poète de la cour gujarati Someshwara, qui a servi à la cour des derniers rois Solanki, mentionne que le jeune roi Mularaja (le fils de Naikidevi) a vaincu une armée de mlechhas (Envahisseurs Ghori). Cependant, la description la plus exacte de la défaite de Naikidevi contre l'armée de Muhammad Ghori provient des travaux du 14e savant jaïn Merutunga. Dans son travail, Prabandha Chintamani il mentionne comment Naikidevi, la reine et mère de Mularaja II, a combattu les armées de la mleccha roi à Gadaraghatta ou Kyara près du pied du mont Abu.

Naikidevi, la reine et mère de Mularaja II, a combattu les armées du roi mleccha près du pied du mont Abu.

Il y a aussi des références à la défaite de Muhammad Ghori de son royaume. Le chroniqueur persan du 13ème siècle Minhaj-i-Siraj de Ghor, qui a plus tard servi de chroniqueur à la dynastie des esclaves de Delhi, mentionne que Muhammad Ghori a marché vers Nahrwala (la capitale Solanki Anhilwara) via Uchchha et Multan. Le «Rae de Nahrwala» (le roi Solanki) était jeune, mais commandait une énorme armée avec des éléphants. Dans la bataille qui s'ensuivit, « l'armée de l'Islam fut vaincue et mise en déroute », et le souverain envahisseur dut y retourner sans aucun accomplissement.

Malheureusement, c'est là que se termine l'histoire de Naikidevi. Comme beaucoup de grandes femmes de l'histoire, elle ne trouve qu'une mention éphémère et se perd dans les pages du temps !

Cornelia Sorabji a été la première femme indienne à obtenir un diplôme de l'Université de Bombay et d'Oxford. Elle a combattu le système pour devenir avocate face à des obstacles inimaginables. Voici son histoire, de cran et de courage contre vents et marées !

Saviez-vous qu'une femme du Gujarat était responsable d'avoir forcé les Nations Unies à rendre les premières lignes de la Déclaration universelle des droits de l'homme plus neutres en termes de genre ? Elle a brisé les barrières de caste pour épouser l'homme qu'elle aimait et a également contribué à l'élaboration de la Constitution de l'Inde. Lisez tout sur un héros oublié nommé Hansa Mehta

Découvrez l'histoire d'Umabai Kundapur, un héros méconnu de la lutte pour la liberté de l'Inde, qui a évité les feux de la rampe et a préféré l'anonymat en tant que « Desh Sevika ».


Prise de pouvoir de Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Ghori

Lorsque le sultan Ghias-ud-din monta sur le trône de Ghor, il céda à son frère Muiz-ud-din le gouvernement de la ville de Takinabad, la plus grande ville de Garmsir. Les historiens disent que les frères tenaient une sorte de règle commune. De Takinabad, Muiz-ud-din a commencé à faire des raids continus vers Ghazni qui était alors sous le contrôle des Turcs Ghuzz. Enfin en 1173, lorsque Ghias-ud-din conquit Ghazni, il nomma Muiz-ud-din son vice-roi à Ghazni et commença ainsi le voyage de Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Ghori également connu sous le nom de Muiz-ud-din Muhammad Bin Sam (1173 -1206). Ghori succéda officiellement à son frère à sa mort en 1203. [3] montée


Mort de Prithviraj Chauhan :

À cette époque, Chand Bardai raconte la place du trône de Muhammad Ghori sous forme de poésie au Prithviraj Chauhan.

Chaar baaj, chouvis Gaj, Angul Ashta Pramaan, Ta Upar Sultan hai mat Chuke Chauhan.

Au deuxième moment, après avoir entendu ce poème, le sultan Muhammad Ghori a été tué par une flèche de Prithviraj Chauhan. Donc, il y a eu un gâchis au tribunal. Prithviraj et Chanda Bardai ont tué le thème avec un poignard et ont sacrifié leur vie conformément au plan.

De cette façon, notre héros Prithviraj Chauhan a été soulagé de sa sévère agonie par le plan du poète Chand Bardai. Deuxièmement, le sultan Muhammad Ghori n'a pas apprécié le plaisir de gagner la guerre.


Top 10 des rois Rajput de l'Inde | Histoire indienne

Dans cet article, nous avons compilé une liste des dix principaux rois Rajput qui ont régné sur l'Inde du Nord. Ils sont : 1. Le roi Bhoja (1000-près de 1055 après JC) 2. Prithviraja III Alias ​​Rai Pithora (près de 1178-1192 après JC) 3. Vijayasena (1095-1158 après JC) 4. Dharmapala (770-810 après JC) 5. Devapala ( 810-850 AD) 6. Mahipala I (988-1120 AD) 7. Mahipala (912-944 AD) 8. Yaso Varman (Près de 690-740 AD) et quelques autres.

Roi Rajput # 1. Roi Bhoja (1000-presque 1055 A.D.):

Bhoja était le plus grand souverain des Parmaras qui a élevé le pouvoir de sa dynastie au rang impérial. Il a été considéré comme un grand érudit et un commandant à succès. Il a mené de nombreuses batailles bien qu'il n'ait réussi à conquérir aucun territoire à l'exception de Konkan. Il s'allie au roi Kalachuri Gangeyadeva et au roi Chola Rajendra et envahit le royaume des Chalukya Jayasinha, attaque Malwa et pille Dhara, Ujjain et Mandu.

La tentative de Bhoja de conquérir Gwalior a été contrecarrée par Kirttiraja. Sa tentative d'affirmer la suprématie sur Bundelkhand a été déjouée par le roi Chandela, Vidyadhara. Il n'a pas non plus pu remporter de succès contre les Rashtrakutas de Kanyakubja et les Chauhanas de Nadol. Cependant, le souverain Chauhana de Sakambhari se rendit à lui. Bhoja a soutenu le dirigeant Hindushahi, Anandapala contre Mahmud de Ghazni et a donné refuge à son fils Trilochanpala.

Il rejoint une confédération des chefs Rajput contre les Turcs et conquiert Jhansi, Thaneswar, Nagarkot etc. Ainsi, il contribue à la défense de l'Inde du Nord contre les incursions des Turcs. Les relations de Bhoja avec les Chalukyas du Gujarat n'étaient pas bonnes non plus.

Il n'a pas beaucoup réussi contre eux, sauf à piller Anhihvada une fois. Alors que Bhoja était engagé dans la guerre, à la fois à l'est et à l'ouest avec ses voisins, il mourut d'une maladie. Ainsi, bien que Bhoja se soit constamment engagé dans des batailles, il n'a pas réussi à obtenir beaucoup d'avantages. Son acquisition permanente n'était que Konkan.

Bhoja est devenu célèbre plus par ses poursuites savantes que par ses conquêtes. La paternité de plus de vingt -trois livres sur des sujets variés lui est attribuée. Il était également mécène des arts et de la littérature. Il a fréquenté des érudits comme Dhanapala et Uvata. Il a établi de nombreuses écoles et un collège à Dhara où les étudiants et les universitaires affluaient pour apprendre.

Il agrandit et embellit la ville de Dhara et fonda une nouvelle ville, Bhojapur près d'elle, où il construisit un grand nombre de temples en l'honneur de Shiva. Tout cela l'a placé au rang des grands souverains de l'Inde médiévale. Le Dr D.C. Ganguly écrit : "Toutes ces réalisations de Bhoja dans différentes sphères de la vie ont établi sa prétention à être considéré comme l'un des plus grands rois de l'Inde médiévale."

Bhoja a été remplacé par Javasinha I. Il a demandé l'aide du roi Chalukya. Somesvara I, contre les Kalachuris et les Chalukyas. Il fut renversé par ses ennemis et ce n'est que grâce à l'aide du roi Someswara I qu'il put regagner son trône. En retour, il a aidé Somesvara I dans ses campagnes du Deccan. Mais Jayasinha I ne pouvait pas bien s'entendre avec le prochain roi Chalukya, Somesvara II.

Somesvara II a pris l'aide du roi Chalukya Bhimadeva I du Gujarat, a attaqué Jayasinha I et l'a tué. Udayaditya, le successeur de Jayasinha I, a demandé l'aide de Vigraharaja III, le Chauhanaking de Sakambhari et a réussi à reprendre Malwa. Ses successeurs étaient respectivement Lakshmanadeva et Nara Varman. Tous deux se sont battus contre Chalukya Jayasinha Siddharaja du Gujarat pour leur existence.

Mais Jayasingha Sidharaja a finalement réussi à capturer Malwa en 1135 après JC. Les Chaluky ont régné sur Malwa pendant vingt ans. Par la suite, il a été récupéré par Parmara Vindhya Varman de Mularaja II. Vindhya Varman a lutté contre les dirigeants Hoysala et Yadava et a une fois de plus établi le prestige des Parmaras à Malwa. Ses successeurs, Subhata Varman et Arjuna Varman, se sont battus contre les Chalukyas et les Yadavas Arjuna Varman a été remplacé par Devapala.

Le sultan Iltutmish de Delhi occupa Bhilasa et pilla Ujijain pendant le règne de Devapala. Devapala a été remplacé par Jaitugideva, Jayasinha II, Arjuna Varman II et Bhoja II respectivement.

Malwa a été constamment attaquée par les Yadavas, Chauhanas, Bagehlas et par les sultans turcs de Delhi pendant le règne de ces souverains qui ont brisé les pouvoirs des Parmaras à Malwa. Le dernier souverain des Parmaras était Mahlak Deo. Il a été attaqué par Ala-ud-din Khalji en 1305 après JC, tué par son général Ain-ul-Mulk et Malwa a finalement été conquise par les musulmans.

Roi Rajput # 2. Prithviraja III Alias ​​Rai Pithora (près de 1178-1192 après JC):

Lorsque Prithviraja monta sur le trône, il se trouva confronté à de nombreuses difficultés et dangers, le pire étant l'invasion des Turcs sous Muhammad de Ghur. Muhammad avait renversé le règne de Khusrav Malik, le souverain de la dynastie Yamini de Ghazni et annexé l'ouest du Pendjab. Maintenant, ses frontières touchaient la frontière du royaume de Prithviraja III. Muhammad était déterminé à conquérir l'Inde et Prithviraja III était l'ennemi le plus déterminé à mettre un frein à son ambition.

Au début du règne de Prithviraja, Muhammad a proposé un traité de paix avec lui tout en procédant à l'attaque du Gujarat. Prithviraja, cependant, a décliné son offre et a décidé de le combattre lorsqu'il a réussi à capturer Nadol. Mais, Prithviraja et les Chalukyas du Gujarat, n'étaient pas en bons termes les uns avec les autres et, par conséquent, Prithviraja s'est abstenu d'attaquer Muhammad à ce moment-là et a attendu le résultat de la bataille entre Muhammad et les Chalukyas. En 1178 après JC, le roi Chalukya, Mularaja II a vaincu Muhammad au pied d'Abu sous la direction compétente de sa mère, Nayikadevi.

Prithviraja fut ravi de la nouvelle de la défaite de Mahomet puis, après avoir réprimé la révolte de son cousin Nagarjuna, il poursuivit ses plans de conquête. Vers 1182 après JC, il a vaincu les Bhadanakas qui occupaient les territoires de Rewari, Bhiwani et une partie de l'ancien État d'Alwar.

La même année, il attaque le souverain Chandela Paramardi, également connu sous le nom de Parmal, roi de Jejakabhukti (Bundelkhand). Alha et Udal, les célèbres généraux de Parmardi, ont opposé une résistance féroce à Prithviraja dans la bataille mais ont été tués. Prithviraja a occupé Mahoba et Kalinjar bien qu'il n'ait pas réussi à les garder longtemps sous sa domination. En 1283 après JC, les Chandelas reprirent leur royaume perdu. En 1186 après JC, Prithviraja attaqua le Gujarat.

Il a été opposé par le Paramara Dharavarsha et le Pritihara Jagaddeva qui ont été envoyés par Bhima II, le roi régnant du Gujarat pour s'opposer à lui. La bataille est restée indécise mais, finalement, Bhima II a accepté la paix avec Prithviraja. Ainsi, Prithviraja a poursuivi une politique de conquête contre ses voisins, mais la politique n'a pas beaucoup réussi. Toutes ces guerres ne semblent avoir abouti à aucune acquisition de territoire.

En 1190 après JC, Muhammad de Ghur se dirigea vers Delhi via le Pendjab. Il a conquis Tabarhindah (Bhatinda), qui était dans le territoire de Prithviraja. Puis il retourna terminer sa préparation pour la bataille imminente contre Prithviraja. Alors que Prithviraja se dirigeait vers Tabarhindah en vue de le reprendre, Muhammad revint et fit face à Prithviraja sur le champ de bataille de Tarain, à 80 miles de Delhi. Cette première bataille de Tarain entre Muhammad et Prithviraja a eu lieu en 1190-91 après JC.

Muhammad a été vaincu et blessé dans cette bataille. Un noble Khalji a sauvé la vie du sultan en l'éloignant du champ de bataille. Selon le Hammira-Mahakavya, Prithviraja a fait prisonnier Muhammad mais l'a ensuite relâché. Mais cela semble être un compte exagéré. Prithviraja, cependant, a repris Tabarhindah et l'est du Pendjab.

Pendant ce temps, l'inimitié entre Prithviraja et Jayachandra, le souverain de Kannauj, a augmenté. Les deux se préparaient l'un contre l'autre pour la souveraineté du nord de l'Inde et, par conséquent, devaient entrer en conflit l'un avec l'autre. En outre, probablement, la fuite de Sanvogita, la fille de Jayachandra, avec Prithviraja est également devenue l'une des raisons de l'inimitié et a entraîné une bataille ouverte et indécise entre les deux.

Les historiens sont divisés sur l'histoire romantique du mariage de Sanyogita avec Prithviraja. Le Dr D.C. Ganguly n'accepte pas l'histoire comme un fait historique, tandis que le Dr Dashratha Sharma l'accepte comme un fait. L'histoire, comme cela a été raconté, est que Jayachandra a invité tous les dirigeants hindous importants dans sa capitale pour la sélection d'un époux pour et par sa fille Sanyogita.

Mais il n'a pas invité son ennemi, Prithviraja. Au lieu de cela, il a placé sa statue à la porte de la salle de réunion dans le but d'humilier Prithviraja en le montrant comme un garde du palais. Sanyogita a décidé d'accepter Prithviraja comme son mari et a décoré sa statue de son choix. Prithviraja, qui était présent là déguisé, s'enfuit avec elle dans son royaume.

Alors que les soldats et les généraux de Prithviraja affrontaient et contrôlaient l'armée de Kannauj à différents endroits, Prithviraja atteignit Ajmer en toute sécurité avec Sanyogita et l'épousa. Si l'histoire est acceptée comme un fait historique, alors il ne fait aucun doute qu'elle a dû enflammer l'inimitié entre ces deux puissants dirigeants du nord de l'Inde, bien contre les intérêts de l'Inde lorsqu'elle était sérieusement menacée par l'invasion de Muhammad de Ghur.

Muhammad ne pouvait pas oublier sa défaite contre Prithviraja. Il organisa une force de cent vingt mille hommes à Ghazni et retourna en Inde en 1192 pour venger sa défaite. Prithviraja l'a de nouveau affronté sur le champ de bataille de Tarain. Il était soutenu par près de 150 chefs feudataires, mais aucun dirigeant Rajput indépendant n'est venu à son aide au moment de cette calamité nationale.

Mahomet avait demandé à Prithviraja d'accepter l'Islam et sa suzeraineté, ce qui lui a été refusé avec mépris. Cependant, Prithviraja a offert la paix si Muhammad pouvait rester satisfait de l'occupation de Tabarhindah et de l'est du Pendjab. Muhammad a dupé Prithviraja en l'engageant dans des pourparlers de paix et un jour tôt le matin a attaqué les Rajputs et les a pris par surprise.

Les Rajputs ont été vaincus lors de ce qu'on appelle la deuxième bataille de Tarain. Prithviraja s'enfuit de là mais fut fait prisonnier dans le quartier de Sursuti (Sarasvati). Par la suite, il a été condamné à mort pour complot contre la vie du sultan Muhammad.

La seconde bataille de Tarain marqua la fin de l'empire des Chauhanas. Bien sûr, le fils mineur de Prithviraja a été laissé en tant que souverain d'Ajmer pendant un certain temps, mais son gouvernement n'était qu'un fantoche. Hariraja, frère de Prithviraja, a déposé le fils de Prithviraja après un certain temps et a assuré la souveraineté d'Ajmer jusqu'en 1194 après JC.

Par la suite, Hariraja a été vaincu par Qutb-ub-din Aibak. Hariraja s'est brûlé à mort et Ajmer a été occupé par les Turcs. Delhi, étant déjà aux mains des Turcs, la chute d'Ajmer fut témoin de la destruction définitive des Chauhanas. Leurs descendants, bien sûr, ont continué à régner à Ranthambhore, mais la dynastie impériale des Chauhanas a pris fin. Ranthambhore a finalement été capturé par Ala-ud-din Khalji.

Prithviraja III alias Rai Pithora était donc le dernier roi illustre des Chauhanas. Mais Prithviraja est célèbre non pas à cause de ses succès dans les armes ou la diplomatie mais à cause de son caractère personnel qui était représentatif de son époque et possédait les vices et les vertus des Rajputs de cette époque. Prithviraja était un combattant capable et un dirigeant intrépide.

Il était courageux, chevaleresque, audacieux et romantique et, ainsi, a gagné le nom et la renommée parmi ses contemporains. Mais il n'était ni diplomate ni clairvoyant. Ses vertus étaient celles d'un héros de nombreuses batailles plutôt que d'un dirigeant couronné de succès. Ignorant les conséquences dangereuses de l'invasion des Turcs, il s'est engagé dans des guerres chevaleresques et romanesques contre ses voisins.

Par conséquent, aucun d'entre eux n'est venu à son soutien contre Muhammad de Ghur. Bien sûr, cent cinquante chefs féodaux se sont ralliés à son soutien lors de la seconde bataille de Tarain, mais aucun d'eux n'était un souverain indépendant de quelque importance. À cette époque, Bhima Deva II du Gujarat et Jayachandra de Kannauj étaient d'autres dirigeants puissants du nord de l'Inde. L'armée du Gujarat avait vaincu Muhammad une fois et Prithviraja l'avait vaincu en solitaire lors de la première bataille de Tarain.

Si Bhimadeva II et Jayachandra, ou même l'un d'entre eux, avaient décidé de soutenir Prithviraja lors de la seconde bataille de Tarain, il y avait toutes les chances du succès des Rajputs contre les Turcs. Dans ce cas, le cours de l'histoire indienne aurait été différent. Probablement, Bhimadeva II et Jayachandra manquaient également de clairvoyance et ont donc décidé de laisser Prithviraja seul contre Muhammad.

Mais Prithviraja devrait être tenu davantage responsable du malheur de son empire et de celui du peuple indien. Étant le souverain de Delhi, il était à la porte de l'Inde et, principalement, il était de sa responsabilité de vérifier l'avancée des Turcs en Inde. S'il avait été clairvoyant et diplomate, il aurait pu réussir à obtenir le soutien de Bhimadeva ou Jayachandra ou des deux.

De plus, il n'a pas adopté une politique agressive contre Mahomet. Il n'a profité ni de la défaite de Mahomet contre Mularaja du Gujarat ni de son propre succès lors de la première bataille de Tarain. Il pourrait facilement exploiter le malheur de Mahomet à son avantage en occupant le Pendjab et en lui interdire l'entrée par le nord-ouest.

Au lieu de cela, il a choisi d'être sur la défensive, a négligé les fortifications et les défenses de son fort frontalier de Tabarhindah qui a été facilement capturé par Mahomet à deux reprises, n'a pas fait une préparation adéquate pour une bataille finale contre Mahomet et a même permis à Mahomet de le vaincre par un stratagème. et attaque surprise.

Ainsi, Prithviraja n'était ni un diplomate ni un commandant militaire avisé. Prithviraja est connu comme un roi chevaleresque et, plus que cela, parce que les Turcs ont réussi à établir un empire en Inde après sa défaite et, ainsi, ont commencé un nouveau chapitre de l'histoire indienne. Comme d'autres dirigeants contemporains de son époque, Prithviraja, lui aussi, avait perdu le droit de régner sur ses sujets parce que lui aussi, comme d'autres, n'avait pas réussi à défendre l'Inde, sa culture et la vie et l'honneur de son peuple.

Prithviraja, comme tous les autres dirigeants de l'Inde, n'essayait pas de défendre ce pays et son peuple contre les envahisseurs étrangers, mais seulement son propre royaume. Tous les dirigeants hindous de cette époque avaient une vision limitée et ce fut l'une des principales causes de leur échec contre les Turcs.

Roi Rajput # 3. Vijayasena (1095-1158 après JC) :

Vijayasena was an ambitious, courageous and diplomatic king. He converted the small principality of Radha into the strong empire of Bengal. He married Vilasadevi, a princess of the Sura family and entered into an alliance with Ananta Varman, king of Kalinga. He tried to take advantage of the disintegration of the Pala kingdom after the death of its ruler Rampala and desired to conquer the whole of Bengal.

His ambition brought him in conflict with his neighbouring rulers but mostly he succeeded. He defeated the rulers of Kotatavi and Kausambi, led a naval expedition in the west along the course of the Ganga, probably against Govindachandra, the ruler of Kannauj and on this very occasion defeated Nanyadeva, the ruler of Mithila. He occupied Gaunda and forced the last Pala ruler Madanapala to seek safety in Magadha.

About the middle of the twelfth century he defeated Bhoja Varman and conquered East Bengal. Thus, the entire Bengal was united under his rule. He also defeated Raghava who, after the death of his father Ananta Varman, had become the king of Kalinga. The ruler of Kamarupa was also defeated by him. Probably, he snatched away south Bihar as well from the Pala ruler Madanapala.

Thus, Vijayasena was the real founder of the Sena dynasty of Bengal. He ruled for nearly 60 years and brought about peace and prosperity in Bengal which was ruined because of the disintegration of the Pala dynasty. He was a devotee of Siva and built a temple in the Rajshahi district. The poet Umapatidhara lived at his court and composed the famous Deopara-Prasasti from which the details of his reign are known to us.

Rajput King # 4. Dharmapala (770-810 A.D.):

Dharmapala, the son and successor of Gopala proved a great ruler. He understood the feeling of sacrifice and devotion of the people of Bengal and utilised it properly by successfully converting the kingdom of Bengal into one of the foremost empires of northern India.

When he ascended the throne, the Pratiharas, who had established, their power in Malwa and Rajputana were gradually extending their power towards the east and so also the newly established power of the Rashtrakutas in the Deccan desired to possess the plains of north India. Each of them tried to capture Kannauj which was regarded as the key-centre and prestigious state of north India at that time.

Dharmapala desired the same and therefore, came in conflict with both the Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas. Dharmapala first fought a battle against the Pratihara ruler Vatsaraja in the Ganga-Yamuna Doab and was defeated. But before Vatsaraja could exploit the situation in his favour, the Rashtrakuta ruler Dhruva attacked north India and forced Vatsaraja to seek safety in Raiputana. Dhruva proceeded further and defeated Dharmapala as well. But he retreated to the South soon.

The attack of Dhruva in the north and even his own defeat did not harm Dharmapala. On the contrary, it helped him indirectly. Dhruva had given a powerful shock to the growing power of the Partiharas which helped Dharmapala in consolidating his power in northern India. Dharmapala attacked Kannauj, deposed Indrayudha and placed Chakrayudh on the throne under his sovereignty.

Though details are not available about the wars of conquest of Dharmapala, yet it is certain that Bengal and Bihar were under his direct rule, the ruler of Kannauj was under his suzerainty and many other rulers of Punjab, Rajputana, Malwa and Berar also acknowledged his overlordship.

Dharmapala’s position was again challenged by the Pratihara ruler Nagabhatta II, the son and successor of Vatsaraja. Nagabhatta attacked Kannauj and turned out Chakrayudha who was under the suzerainty of Dharmapala. Therefore, Dharmapala had to fight against Nagabhatta. The battle between the two was fought near Monghyr (Bihar) in which Dharampala was defeated.

But, once again the interference of the Rastrakutas in the politics of the North proved effective. The Rashtrakuta king, Govinda III, attacked north India. Chakrayudha and Dharmapala accepted his suzerainty without fighting. Probably, both of them had invited the Rashtrakuta king to avenge their defeat at the hands of Nagabhatta who fought against Govinda III but was defeated.

Again, the defeat of the Pratiharas by the Rashtrakutas gave Dharmapala an opportunity to consolidate his power in the North. The power of Pratiharas being shattered, he again asserted himself after the retirement of Govinda to the south and gained large territories to his empire. He left a large empire to his son and successor Devapala.

Dharmapala was a capable king. Of course, the transformation of Bengal from a kingdom to an empire was the creation of the spirit of self-sacrifice and political wisdom displayed by the people of Bengal at that time, but, the credit of this achievement goes to king Dharmapala as well. He was a courageous commander and a good diplomat.

He fought many battles, was defeated by the Pratiharas twice, yet he kept up his courage and determination to create an empire. He took great advantage of the conflict of the Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas in the politics of north India and succeeded in establishing an empire and also governing it well. He assumed the high sounding titles of Parmeswara, Paramabhattarak and Maharajadhiraj.

For the first time, he, certainly, assigned the empire of Bengal a significant position in the politics of north India. Dr R.C. Majumdar writes of him, “The country which was hopelessly divided by internal dissensions and trampled upon by a succession of foreign invaders for more than a century, was raised by him to the position of a strong integrated state exercising imperial sway over a considerable part of northern India. Sasanka’s dream of founding a great Gauda empire was at last fulfilled.”

Dharmapala distinguished himself in the peaceful pursuits of life as well. He found the famous Vikramsila monastery which afterwards developed into a great centre of Buddhist learning. He also found a great Buddhist Vihara in the Rajshahi district. In his old age Dharampala married Rannadevi, one of the Rashtrakuta princess who gave birth to his son and successor Devapala.

Rajput King # 5. Devapala (810-850 A.D.):

Devapala was a worthy son of a worthy father. He not only kept intact the empire which he inherited from his father but also extended it further. Devapala followed an aggressive imperialist policy and spent a great part of his life in military campaigns. Again, the Pratiharas proved to be the main rival to the Palas. The Pratihara ruler Nagabhatta II had occupied Kannauj.

Devapala forced him to retreat and then proceeded to conquer north India. It has been suggested that he made attacks from the Himalayas in the North to the Vindhyas in the South. In the north-west he attacked up to the territories of Kamboja and Punjab. He forced the rulers of Assam and Utkal to accept his suzerainty, attacked the boundaries of the empire of the Pratihara ruler Nagabhatta and, probably, fought wars against the Rashtrakutas or the Pandyas of the South.

He also defeated the Pratihara ruler Mihirbhoj. Thus, his military campaigns were successful. Certainly his direct rule was limited to the territories of Bengal and Bihar but most of the rulers of northern India acknowledged suzerainty while the Pratiharas, his powerful rival in the North failed to check his progress. The Pratihara ruler Mihirbhoj could get success and restore the glory of the Pratihara empire only after the death of Devapala.

Devapala ruled for nearly forty years. Leaving apart the success of military campaigns, he has been accepted as a patron of Buddhist religion, literature and fine arts. The Arab traveller Sulaiman described him as a more powerful ruler than his contemporary Pratihara and Rashtrakuta rulers.

Devapala succeeded more than his father. Dr R.C. Majumdar writes of them, “The reigns of Dharmapala and Devapala constitute the most brilliant chapter in the history of Bengal. Never before, or since, till the advent of the British, did Bengal play such an important role in Indian politics.”

The Period of Downfall (850-988 A.D.):

The successors of Devapala proved weak and pursued a peaceful policy which led to the weakening of the Pala empire. Vigrahapala I, the successor of Devapala ruled for a very short period. Vigrahapala I was succeeded by his son, Narayanapala, who ruled between the period 854-908 A.D. He was a man of religious disposition and pursued a pacific policy. This encouraged the enemies of the Palas and both the Rashtrakutas and the Pratiharas took advantage of it.

The policy was followed by feudatory chiefs of the Palas as well. Some time after 860 A.D., the Rashtrakutas defeated the Pala ruler. The Pratiharas also took advantage of the weakness of the Palas and their rulers Mihirbhoj and Mahendrapala gradually extended their power to the east. Narayanapala not only lost Magadhabut also north Bengal for some time.

The feudatory chiefs of Assam and Orissa also got the opportunity to throw off the yoke of the Palas and asserted independence. Thus, the Palas lost their glory and territories and, for a time, the rule of Narayanapala was confined to a part of Bengal only. However, he succeeded in recovering Magadlia and north Bengal from the Pratiharas during the later part of his life.

This was, probably, due to the Rashtrakuta invasion on the Pratihara dominions. Narayanapala was defeated by the Rashtrakuta king Krishna II as well, but peace was established and, probably, strengthened by a marriage alliance. Narayanapala was succeeded by Rajyapala, Gopala II and Vigrahapala respectively. Put together, they ruled for nearly eighty years.

But each of them proved to be an incapable ruler and whatever was left by Narayanapala was lost by them. The Chandelas, the Kalachuris and the Kambojas attacked and conquered different territories of the Palas, while the south and east Bengal was occupied by the Chandra dynasty. The disintegration of the Pala empire was, thus, complete.

Rajput King # 6. Mahipala I (988-1120 A.D.):

Mahipala I succeeded to the throne of his father Vigrahapala II about 988 A.D. By that time the territories of the Palas had remained limited to Magadha or south Bihar. The Palas had lost even their ancestral kingdom in Bengal. Mahipala once more revived the power and prestige of the Palas. He ruled during 988-1038 A.D. and constantly engaged himself in wars.

He succeeded in capturing north, west and east Bengal and, towards the west, extended his territories up to Banaras. But his power was seriously shattered by an attack on Bengal by one of the commanders of the Chola king, Rajendra some time during 1021-1023 A.D. Bengal was invaded by Kalachuri ruler Gangeyadeva also towards the close of the reign of Mahipala.

This reduced the extent of the territories of Mahipala, yet he was able to keep control over the larger part of Bengal and Bihar. Mahipala not only saved the Pala kingdom from impending ruin but also restored, to a large extent, the lost glory and power of the Palas. That is why he has been justly regarded as the founder of the second Pala empire. Mahipala constructed and repaired a large number of religious places, towns and tanks at different places.

Mahipala was succeeded by his son Nayapala who ruled during 1038-1055 A.D. The most important event of the reign of Nayapala was the protracted war between Nayapala and Kalachuri ruler Kama. Kama desired to push up the boundary of his empire further to the east at the cost of the Palas. This led to long time enmity between the Palas and the Kalachuris.

However, during the period of Nayapala, after severe conflicts, peace was restored between the two powers primarily because of the efforts of reconciliation by the famous Buddhist monk Dipankara Srijnana. Nayapala was succeeded by Vigrahapala III who ruled during 1055-1070 A.D. During his period Bengal was attacked by different powers. First, the Kalachuri king Kama revived the hostilities and attacked the boundary of western Bengal.

However, peace was restored and Kama even got his daughter married to Vigrahapala. Afterwards, the Chalukya ruler Vikramaditya VI, attacked Bengal and defeated Vigrahapala. Mahasiva Gupta Yayati, ruler of Kosala also raided the territories of Bengal. These foreign attacks weakened the power of Vigrahapala and independent kingdoms were established at different places out of the territories of the Palas. With much difficulty, Vigrahapala was able to keep Gauda and Magadha under his rule.

In 1070 A.D. Mahipala II, son of Vigrahapala III, ascended the throne. He proved quite incapable. His nobles revolted against him and killed him. One of them named Divya or Divoka occupied Varendri (North Bengal).

Mahipala II had imprisoned his brothers — Surapala and Ramapala. During the period of revolt against Mahipala they fled from the prison and established themselves in Magadha. Surapala ruled there for a couple of years and was then succeeded by his younger brother Ramapala in 1077 A.D. Ramapala restored the lost prestige of the Palas and proved to be the last capable ruler of the dynasty.

He defeated Bhima, the successor of Divya and ruler of Varendri (North Bengal) and occupied his kingdom. He defeated and forced the ruler of Assam to accept his suzerainty. He interfered in the politics of Orissa and tried to check the growing influence of the ruler of Kalinga there. He entered into a matrimonial alliance with Govindachandra, king of Kannauj and successfully resisted his ambitions towards the east.

He could also check the power of the Senas of west Bengal and that of Nanyadeva, ruler of north Bihar so that none of them could interfere in his kingdom. Thus, both by diplomacy and war, Ramapala succeeded in restoring and maintaining the power of the Palas at least in a large part of Bengal and Bihar. He died in 1120 A.D. and that resulted in the fall of the Palas.

Rajput King # 7. Mahipala (912-944 A.D.):

Mahendrapala was succeeded by his son Bhoja II but his cousin, Mahipala, shortly dethroned him and became the ruler of Kannauj. During his period, the Rashtrakutas again interfered in the politics of north India. The Rashtrakuta king, Indra III, attacked sometime between 915-918 A.D., defeated Mahipala of Kannauj, occupied Kannauj and pursued Mahipala as far as Allahabad.

But, as on previous occasions, the Rashtrakutas did not stay long enough to consolidate their conquests in the north. So, after the retirement of Indra III to the south, Mahipala again consolidated his position and recovered a large part of his lost empire. But, in the meantime, the Pala rulers took advantage of his weakness and captured some eastern parts of his empire.

Once more, about 940 A.D., the Rashtrakutas attacked the north (during the reign of Krishna III) and occupied the forts of Kalinjar and Chitrakuta. Thus, though Mahipala succeeded in recovering a large part of his empire, the attacks of the Rashtrakutas lowered the power and prestige of the Pratiharas. The advantage was drawn not only by the Palas but also by feudatory rulers. The Chandelas, the Chedis, the Parmaras etc. succeeded in asserting their independence. Thus, though Mahipala could safeguard a large part of his empire yet his period marked the beginning of the decline of the power of Partiharas.

The Successors of Mahipala and the Fall of the Pratihara Empire — (944—Nearly 1036 A.D.):

Mahipala was succeeded by his son Mahendrapala II. He ruled only for a year. Afterwards, we find no less than four successors during a period of fifteen years. Devapala, Vinayakapala II, Mahipala II and Vijayapala ruled in succession over the throne of Kannauj but none of them proved to be a capable ruler. Rather, the quick succession of these rulers proves that family feuds had started among the Pratiharas.

This resulted in the disintegration of the Pratihara empire from the period of Devapala (948 A.D.). Near about 963 A.D., the Rashtrakuta king Indra III again attacked northern India and gave the final blow to the Pratihara domination in Central India. The central authority of the Pratihara empire was broken and out of its ruins arose the independent kingdoms of the Chalukyas in Gujarat, the Chandelas in Jejakabhukti, the Kachchhaghata in Gwalior, the Kalachuris in Central India, the Paramaras in Malwa, the Guhilas in south Rajputana, the Chhahamanas (Chauhanas) in Sakambhari, etc.

Thus, by the time Rajyapala ascended the throne of Kannauj late in the tenth century, he was no more a ruler of an empire but that of a small kingdom. The Pratihara empire had vanished by the time. The Turks invaded India during the reign of Rajyapala. The challenge from the north­west was met by the Brahmanashahi kingdom on the borders of Afghanistan. Rajyapala supported the Brahamanshahi ruler Jaipala against Sabuktagin in 991 A.D. and then his son Anandapala also against Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in 1008 A.D.

Ultimately, Mahmud succeeded in destroying the Brahmanashahi kingdom and attacked Kannauj in 1018 A.D. Rajyapala did not fight against him but fled. Feeling dissatisfied with the shameful behaviour of Rajyapala against a foreign attacker, the Chandela ruler Ganda sent his son Vidyadhar to attack Kannauj. Vidyadhar defeated and killed Rajyapala and placed his son Trilochanapala on the throne of Kannauj.

Trilochanapala was defeated by Sultan Mahmud in 1019 A.D. though he remained alive till 1027 A.D. His successor and the last ruler of Pratihara dynasty was Yasapala who remained as a petty ruler up to 1036 A.D. Thus ended the mighty Pratihara empire. In fact, the power of the Pratiharas had declined during the reign of Mahipala late in the tenth century though, in name, it survived a little longer.

Noted historian Dr R.C. Majunidar has given a respectable position to the Pratiharas in the history of India. He describes that the credit of establishing the last great empire in Hindu India does not go to emperor Harsha but to the Pratiharas. One after the other, Vatsaraja. Nagabhatta II, Mihirbhoj and Mahendrapala I brought glory to the Pratiharas, succeeded in creating an extensive empire in northern India even after fighting against the powerful Palas and Rashtrakutas and maintained that empire for about a century.

Another achievement of the Pratiharas was to check the penetration of the Arabs into the interior of India. Elphinstone and all other historians after him expressed surprise at the fact that the Arabs failed to penetrate deeper into India even at the zenith of their power. The reason was that they were checked by the power of the Pratiharas. The Arabs themselves have given a glorious account of the might and prosperity of the Pratiharas.

The Arab traveller Sulaiman described Mihirbhoj as the greatest enemy of the Islam. Thus, there is no doubt that the Pratiharas effectively checked the progress of the Arabs beyond the confines of Sindh, which must be regarded as a significant contribution of the Pratiharas to the history of India. Besides, even when the power of the Pratiharas was in a broken state, the Pratihara king Rajyapala supported the Brahmanashahi rulers Jaipala and Anandapala against Sabuktagin and Mahmud of Ghazni.

This proves that Rajyapala was also anxious to pursue the traditional policy of the Pratiharas to check the penetration of Muslim invaders into India though, of course, he himself fled against the mighty power of Sultan Mahmud. Thus, the Pratiharas maintained the dignity of a great empire in north India for about a century and fulfilled their duty to fight against foreign invaders.

Besides, the empire of the Pratiharas proved more durable as compared to their contemporary empire- builders — the Palas and the Rashtrakutas. Thus, the Pratiharas played a significant role in the history of India after the fall of the empire of Harsha and were the last empire-builders of Hindu India.

Rajput King # 8. Yaso Varman (Nearly 690-740 A.D.):

In the beginning of the eighth century, we find a powerful monarch Yaso Varman occupying the throne of Kannauj. Nothing is known of the early history and antecedents of this king. Jain-texts have described him as related to the Maurvas while certain scholars regard him related to the Maukhari family as the word varman is attached to his name. But none of the above views has been justified by evidences.

However, Yaso Varman was a powerful monarch who engaged himself in many military adventures. He was a contemporary of Lalitaditya Muktapida, the ruler of Kashmir. He sent Pu-ta-sin (Buddhasena) as his ambassador to China, with which he had diplomatic relations, in 731 A.D. The chief source of our knowledge of his life and reign is the poetical work in Prakrat by his celebrated court-poet Vakapati.

Vakapati has described his conquests in highly glorified terms, yet it is believed that Yaso Varman had certainly succeeded in conquering Magadha and Bengal. His empire extended towards the north-west as well and he defeated the Arabs also. One inscription of the Chalukya king Vijayaditya suggests that Yaso Varman fought against Vinyaditya, father of Vijyaditya.

Both parties had claimed victory in the battle. Therefore, the success of Yaso Varman towards the south is doubtful. However, the inscription refers to him as ‘the great king of North India’ which justifies that Yaso Varman had conquered the greater part of northern India. Yaso Varman was, however, defeated by Lalitaditya, the ruler of Kashmir in 733 A.D. Kalhana, who described the history of Kashmir in his famous work the Rajatarangini has given a detailed description of the long struggle between these two kings.

He explicitly wrote that Yaso Varman was defeated. Probably, both the kings were engaged in a bitter conflict with each other for the sovereignty of north India in which Lalitaditya finally emerged victorious. Yaso Varman, probably, lived even after this defeat but his power and fame were lost. His successors failed to revive the glory of Kannauj and were therefore, lost to obscurity.

Yaso Varman’s rise to power was sudden and so was his fall. He rose to power as a military adventurer like Sasanka of Gauda and Yasodharman of Malwa and the same way he lost his power. However, he was not only a great conqueror but also a patron of learning. Besides Vakapati and many others, the famous poet of Sanskrit language Bhavabhuti, who wrote his renowned works the Malti- madhava, the Mahavira-charita and the Uttar-Ramcharita, was also at his court.

Rajput King # 9. Mihirbhoj (Nearly 836-885 A.D.):

Mihirbhoj made Kannauj his capital and succeeded in consolidating his power and influence in Malwa, Rajputana and Madhya-Desh. But he had to face many challenges and initially failed. He had to fight against Devapal and was defeated, a fact which checked the extension of his power towards further east.

Again, when he tried to take advantage of internal conflicts of the Rastrakutas and attacked south India sometime between 845-860 A.D., he was defeated by Dhruva, the ruling king of the Gujarat-branch of the Rashtrakutas. He was also defeated by the Kalachuri King Kokkalla. These successive defeats resulted in weakening his hold over Rajputana and even the feudatory Pratihara ruler of Jodhpur became independent.

Yet, these reverses failed to subdue the ambition and spirit of Mihirbhoj. He bade his time and waited for the right opportunity. The death of Devapal, ruler of Bengal and, thereafter, weakness of his successors gave him an opportunity to revive his strength towards the east and the peaceful policy pursued by Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarsha encouraged him to take his chances towards the south.

First, he defeated the Pala king Narayanapala and snatched away from him a considerable part of his western dominions. Next, he took offensive against the Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna II and defeated him on the banks of the Narmada. Thereafter he occupied Malwa and Kathiawar. He fought once again against the Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna II at Ujjayini. This time he was defeated. But, whether he lost Malwa or not is not clear.

Yet, Mihirbhoj succeeded in reviving the glory of the Pratiharas and the rulers of Kannauj. He had an extensive empire which included Kathiawar, territories up to the Punjab in the north-west, Malwa and Madhya-Desh. He had consolidated his power in Rajputana and the Kalachuris of Bihar and Chandelas of Bundelkhand had accepted his sovereignty. Dr. R.C. Majumdar writes, “Bhoja thus consolidated a mighty empire in northern India for which Vatsaraja and Nagabhatta had fought in vain, and raised Kannauj, once more, to the posiuon of an imperial city.”

Rajput King # 10. Lakshmanasena (1178-nearly 1205 A.D.):

Lakshmanasena sat on the throne at the ripe age of sixty years. He was a great military leader and fought many victorious battles during the reign of his father and grandfather. When he became king he fought against Jayachandra, the ruler of Kannauj. He succeeded in defeating him and made an attack up to Banaras and Allahabad. He included the larger part of Bihar in his kingdom. He also successfully defended his kingdom against the attacks of the Kalachuris.

But the kingdom of Lakshmanasena began to disintegrate in the closing years of the twelfth century. Some nobles of Lakshmanasena were successful in asserting their independence. And, while the kingdom was thus weakened by internal disruptions. Muhammad Bakhtyar Khalji attacked its capital Nadia and occupied it in a surprise move. Lakshmanasena fled to east Bengal for safety. He continued to rule over east and south Bengal even afterwards but failed to recover his power and prestige. He died shortly after 1205 A.D.

The Successors of Lakshmanasena and the Fall of the Sena Dynasty:

Lakshmanasena was succeeded by his son, Visvarupasena, who ruled for about 14 years. He was succeeded by his brother, Kesavasena who probably ruled over east Bengal up to 1245 A.D. After him, east Bengal was occupied by the Deva- dynasty ruler Dasarathadeva. The rest of Bengal remained in the hands of the Turks.

Importance of the Senas:

The credit of safeguarding Bengal from anarchy after the fall of the Pala dynasty went to the Senas. The Senas believed in Hinduism. They contributed to the revival of Hinduism and Sanskrit literature in Bengal. Vallalasena and Lakshmanasena were scholarly kings and both patronised scholars and education. Jayadeva, the writer of the Halayudha and the Gitagovinda was patronised by them.


Contenu

Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad was born in 1149 in the Ghor region of Khorasan. The exact date of his birth is unknown. His father, Baha al-Din Sam I, was the local ruler of the Ghor region at the time. [1] Mu'izz also had an elder brother named Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad. During their early life, Mu'izz and Ghiyath were imprisoned by their uncle Ala al-Din Husayn, but were later released by the latter's son Sayf al-Din Muhammad. [3] When Sayf died in 1163, the Ghurid nobles supported Ghiyath, and helped him ascend the throne. Ghiyath shortly gave Mu'izz control over Istiyan and Kajuran. However, the throne was challenged by several Ghurid chiefs Mu'izz aided Ghiyath in defeating and killing a rival Ghurid chief named Abu'l Abbas.

Ghiyath was then challenged by his uncle Fakhr al-Din Masud, who claimed the throne for himself, and had allied with Tadj al-Din Yildiz, the Seljuq governor of Herat, and Balkh. [4] However, the coalition was defeated by Ghiyath and Mu'izz at Ragh-i Zar. The brothers managed to kill the Seljuq governor during the battle, and then conquered Zamindawar, Badghis, Gharjistan, and Urozgan. Ghiyath, however, spared Fakhr al-Din and restored him as the ruler of Bamiyan. Mu'izz, after returning from an expedition from Sistan, was shortly awarded with Kandahar by his brother. In 1173, the two brothers invaded Ghazni, and defeated the Oghuz Turks who had captured the city from the Ghaznavids. Mu'izz was then appointed as the ruler of Ghazni. [4]

In 1175, the two brothers conquered Herat from its Seljuq governor, Baha al-Din Toghril, and also managed to conquer Pushang. The ruler of Sistan, Taj al-Din Harb ibn Muhammad, shortly acknowledged the sovereignty of the Ghurids, and so did the Oghuz Turks dominating Kirman. [1]

During the same period, the Khwarazmian Sultan Shah, who was expelled from Khwarezm by his brother Tekish, took refuge in Ghor and requested military aid from Ghiyath. Ghiyath, however, did not help the latter. Sultan Shah managed to get help from the Kara-Khitan Khanate, and began plundering the northern Ghurid domains.

After having helped his brother in expanding the western frontiers of the Ghurid Empire, he began to focus on India. Mu'izz's campaign against the Qarmatians rulers of Multan in 1175 had ended in victory. [5] He turned south, and led his army from Multan to Uch and then across the desert towards the Chaulukya capital of Anhilwara (modern day Patan in Gujarat) in 1178. On the way, Muizz suffered a defeat at the Battle of Kayadara, during his first campaign against an Indian ruler. [5] Gujarat was ruled by the young Chaulukya ruler Mularaja II the Chaulukya forces included the armies of their feudatories such as the Naddula Chahamana ruler Kelhanadeva, the Jalor Chahamana ruler Kirtipala, and the Arbuda Paramara ruler Dharavarsha. [6] Mu'izz's army had suffered greatly during the march across the desert, and the Chaulukyas inflicted a major defeat on him at the village of Kayadara (near to Mount Abu, about forty miles to the north-east of Anhilwara). [5] The invading army suffered heavy casualties during the battle, and also in the retreat back across the desert to Multan. [5] However, Mu'izz was able to take Peshawar and Sialkot.

In 1186, Mu'izz, along with Ghiyath, ended the Ghaznavid dynasty after having captured Lahore and executed the Ghaznavid ruler Khusrau-Malik. [7]

Mu'izz shortly returned to Ghor, and along with the rulers of Bamiyan and Sistan, aided his brother Ghiyath in defeating the forces of Sultan Shah at Merv in 1190. He also annexed most of the latter's territories in Khorasan.

First Battle of Tarain

In 1191, Mu'izz proceeded towards Indian Sub-continent through the Khyber Pass in modern-day Pakistan and was successful in reaching Punjab. Mu'izz captured a fortress, Bathinda in present-day Punjab state on the northwestern frontier of Prithvīrāj Chauhān's kingdom. After appointing a Qazi Zia-ud-Din as governor of the fortress, [8] he received the news that Prithviraj's army, led by his vassal prince Govind Tai were on their way to besiege the fortress. The two armies eventually met near the town of Tarain, 14 miles from Thanesar in present-day Haryana. The battle was marked by the initial attack of mounted Mamluk archers to which Prithviraj responded by counter-attacking from three sides and thus dominating the battle. Mu'izz mortally wounded Govind Tai in personal combat and in the process was himself wounded, whereupon his army retreated [9] and Prithvīrāj's army was deemed victorious. [dix]

According to Rima Hooja and Kaushik Roy, Govind Tal was wounded by Ghori, and later fought at the second battle of Tarain, where he was killed. [11] [12]

Second Battle of Tarain

On his return to Ghor, Mu'izz made preparations to avenge the defeat. According to Firishta, the Rajput army consisted of 3,000 elephants, 300,000 cavalry and infantry (most likely a gross exaggeration). [13] Minhaj-i-Siraj, stated Mu'izz brought 120,000 fully armored men to the battle in 1192. [13]

Prithviraj had called his banners but hoped to buy time as his banners (other Rajputs under him or his allies) had not arrived. Before the next day, Mu'izz attacked the Rajput army before dawn. Rajputs had a tradition of fighting from sunrise to sunset. Although they were able to quickly form formations, they suffered losses due to surprise attack before sunrise. The Rajput army was eventually defeated and Prithviraj was taken prisoner and subsequently executed. [dix]

Further campaigns

When the state of Ajmer failed to fulfill the tribute demands as per the custom after a defeat, Qutbu l-Din Aibak, in 1193 took over Ajmer [14] and soon established Ghurid control in northern and central India. [15] Hindu kingdoms like Saraswati, Samana, Kohram and Hansi were captured without any difficulty. Finally his forces advanced on Delhi, capturing it soon after the Battle of Chandwar, defeating Raja Jaichand of Kannauj. [16] Within a year, Mu'izz controlled northern Rajasthan and the northern part of the Ganges-Yamuna Doab. [17] The Kingdom of Ajmer was then given over to Golā, on condition that he send regular tributes to the Ghurids. [ citation requise ]

Mu'izz returned west to Ghazni to deal with the threat to his western frontiers from the unrest in Iran, but he appointed Aibak as his regional governor for northern India. His armies, mostly under Turkic and Khalaj generals such as Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, continued to advance through northern India, raiding as far east as Bengal. Followed by his conquest of Delhi. An army led by Qutbu l-Din Aibak, Mu'izz's deputy in India, invaded in ca. 1195–97 and plundered Anahilapataka. [18]

In 1200, Tekish died, and was succeeded by Muhammad II of Khwarezm (who took the honorific name 'Ala' al-Din). Among the first to hear of this were Ghiyath and Mu'izz al-Din. Within weeks the two brothers had moved their armies westwards into Khorasan. Once they had captured Nishapur, Mu'izz al-Din was sent on an expedition towards Ray, but he let his troops get out of control and got little further than Gurgan, earning criticism from Ghiyath which led to the only reported quarrel between the brothers. [19]

Ghiyath died at Herat in 1202 after months of illness. Mu'izz, who had quickly returned to Ghor from India, obtained the support of Ghurid nobles, and was crowned as Sultan of the Ghurid Empire at Firuzkuh. Just after his ascension, Muhammad II invaded his domains, and besieged Herat. Mu'izz managed to repel him from Herat and then pursued him to Khwarezm, besieging Gurganj, their capital. Muhammad desperately requested aid from the Kara-Khitan Khanate, who sent an army to aid Muhammad. Mu'izz, because of the pressure from the Kara-Khitans, was forced to relieve the siege and retreat. However, on his way to his domains in Ghur, he was defeated at Andkhud in 1204. [20] [21] Mu'izz, however managed to reach Ghur, and prepared a counter-attack against the Khwarmezians and Kara-Khitans. A revolt shortly broke out in Punjab and the surrounding regions, which forced Mu'izz to make order in the region before mounting a counter-attack against his enemies.

In 1206, Mu'izz, having settled the affairs in India, [22] left all the affairs in India in hands of his slave Qutb al-Din Aibak.

On his way back to Ghazni, his caravan rested at Dhamiak near Sohawa (which is near the city of Jhelum in the Punjab province of modern-day Pakistan). He was assassinated on March 15, 1206 while offering his evening prayers. [ citation requise ] His killers are unconfirmed. It may have been the Khokhars or Ismāʿīlīs. [23] One source states that he was assassinated by the Nizari Ismaili Assassins

In Indian folklore, the death of Mu'izz was caused by Prithviraj Chauhan, [24] but this is not borne out by historical documents and Prithviraj died much earlier before the death of Mu'izz. [25] [26]

Mu'izz had no offspring, but he treated his Turkic slaves as his sons, who were trained both as soldiers and administrators and provided with the best possible education. Many of his competent and loyal slaves rose to positions of importance in Mu'izz's army and government.

When a courtier lamented that the Sultan had no male heirs, Mu'izz retorted:

"Other monarchs may have one son, or two sons I have thousands of sons, my Turkish slaves who will be the heirs of my dominions, and who, after me, will take care to preserve my name in the Khuṭbah (Friday sermon) throughout these territories." [ This quote needs a citation ]

Mu'izz's prediction proved true. After his assassination, his Empire was divided amongst his slaves. Most notably:


1186-1190

1185-1188 Northern Europe: The Kuvlungs insurgence in SW Norway, led by Jon Kuvlung, endagers king Sverre's power, but is eventually crushed.

British Isles: Madoc of Dublin and Leinster subdues in repeated campaigns the southwestern Irish kingdoms of Desmond and Thomond (Munster), then dies and his conquests mostly wane in a sweep of rebellion led by local Irish clans.

British Isles: The High King of Ireland, Rory O'Connor, is overthrown by his son, Connor Maenmaige.

North Africa: The Maurian Catholic count Paul nicknamed Iron Cross, a remote descendant of the Rodrigo/Marmazon who conquered Spain, defeats the Cathar tribes of the Rawel (*OTL Rif) mountains at the battle of Baskara, then turns on the Andalusian and Spanish crusaders who subsequently tried to get rid of him also the vanquished Cathars flock under his banner, now a rallying symbol of national pride.

Byzantine Empire: A bloodless coup deposes Basil I Vatatzes from the throne and makes the immensely popular Alexius Branas the new basileus. The deposed ruler retires as a monk in Bulgaria.

Middle East: Sultan Abdullah of Arabia's army captures Damascus from the Tripoline Crusaders and the Knights of St. John after a protracted siege, crushing three subsequent attempts to relieve the blockade of the city.

Northern Europe: Finnic pirates from Courland and Estonia destroy the Swedish city of Sigtuna.

Southern Europe: Pope Urban III dies, succeeded by the Roman Leo IX (Giacinto Bobone, *OTL Celestine III), who finally settle disputes with the Urbs' populace by allowing the election of local magistrates representing the people. The Genoese wrest from the Pisans the almost impregnable Corsican port of Bonifacio, a town they had been claiming for decades.

North Africa: King Augustine IV of Lesvallia (*OTL Kabylia) conquers Tlemsen from the local duke, Mastanabal III the Cruel. Middle East: Baalbek and the Bekaa Valley fall in the hands of Mohammed Mansur Billah, sultan Abdullah of Arabia's cousin and best general count Bernat I of Tripoli requests help from Europe against the renewed Muslim comeback. Sultan Al-Adil Saphadin of Egypt allies with the Crusaders of Jerusalem against the Arabian ruler, securing the right to enter the Holy City for Muslim unarmed pilgrims in exchange for the alliance and an annual tribute in Mamluk warriors.

India: The Ghorids liquidate the last Ghaznavid stronghold in Lahore, killing the last scion of the rival dynasty, Khusraw Malik.

Southern Europe: A major heretical revolt shakes Lombardy, as thousands of poors flock to the banners of Arnaldist preacher Ranieri da Parma. The movement, after sacking the countryside, burning to ashes some castles and minor towns and coming to besiege some cities, is finally crushed and annihilated and its leaders horribly tortured to death.

1188 Western Europe: Tournai becomes a free town, sparking the Communal movement in the active trade environment of Flanders.

Southern Europe: The rift between the Guidoni (Piedmontese) and Amedei (royal) branches of the Lombard Susa-Biandrate Anscarids is finally composed by two dynastical marriages in the event of an extinction of one of the families, the other would inherit its lands.

Central-Eastern Europe: A Hungarian invasion of Galicia is defeated by the Pólacak/White Ruthenians at the battle of Sambor. The pagan Yotvingians of duke Mingayl kill in battle the king of Poland Casimir II the Just and establish at Grodno their independent duchy of Sudovia as an ally of the powerful Pólacak Empire of Polotsk/Palteskei. Mieszko III the Old regains the Polish crown and pays tribute to the White Ruthenians.

Middle East: The Knight Hospitalier of Saint John lead the legendary defence of Krak des Chevaliers against the hordes of Sultan Abdullah Saif-ul-Islam of Arabia

Central-Eastern Europe: Mieszko III reigns in Poland, supported by his brother-in-law, the Ruthenian Czar Volodar of Polotsk he is constantly fought by the nobility, supporting the cause of Leszek the White et Conrad of Mazovia, Casimir II's young sons, as the kingdom slips more and more into feudal anarchy.

1189 Central-Eastern Europe: Konchak Khan establishes the Khanate of Cumania in OTL Moldavia after defeating the Vlacho-Bulgarians at the Prut river and sacking Kiev. Middle East: Sultan Abdullah's forces crush the last Zengid emirate in Mosul, who was trying to put up a desperate alliance with the Crusaders against the new master came from the desert. A subsequent Arab invasion of Palestine to capture Jerusalem is halted in the bloody battle of Nablus by allied Crusader and Egyptian forces.

Arabia: Wali (*Sunni “Pope”) Abdussalam I of Mecca abolishes the title of Caliph, claiming it had a sense only until the creation of the Waliate this fatwa (*decision) is supported by sultan Abdullah Saif-ul-Islam bin Yusuf an-Nafudi, a zealot partisan of Waliist Islam.

India: In reaction to the formal abolition of any Caliphate by the Meccan Waliate, the Ghorid Caliphist sultan Muhammad proclaims himself Caliph, sparking major Waliist and Ismaili revolts and a rivalry with his brothers that weaken his empire. Final fall of the Chalukyas of Kalyani (Karnataka) their ancient kingdom is carved between the Seunas/Yadavas in the north, the Kakatiyas and the Hoysalas in the remaining lands.

British Isles: The young Owain ap Iorwerth rebels against his uncle Dafydd I of Wales and secures the throne as king Owain III with the help of emperor Amaury the Great of Greater Normandy, renewing Welsh feudal submission and dynastical ties to the Normans. The defeated Dafydd will die as a monk in France.

1189-1191 Byzantine Empire: Basileus Alexius II Branas counterattacks the Turks in Anatolia by allying with the Danishmendids against the Ortoqids and their clients. Byzantine forces defeat and kill Alpay Yusuf of Iconium, enthroning there his Christian cousin Gregory as duke of Batiturkeia Crusader strongholds in the Taurus are also eliminated or subdued, surviving only along the southern Anatolian coast.

1190 Southern Europe: The Serbs defeat the Byzantine army in the Morava valley, securing their independence from Constantinople.

Arabia: Sultan Abdullah Saif-ul-Islam conquers Aden from the Egyptians, then campaigns in Oman, completing his conquest of the Arabic peninsula. Actually, its southern fringes remain a hotbed of Zaydi (Yemen) and Ibadi-Khariji (Oman) rebellious tribes, being subjected only in name to the sultan, and, worst of all, firmly adverse to Waliism.

India: The Hoysala ruler, Ballala II, defeats his Seuna/Yadava rival Bhillama V at the battle of Sorituru, winning the struggle for the Chalukya legacy in southern India.

SE Asia: Anawratha's dynasty is restored in Pagan (Burma) with help from his Sri Lankan allies following a civil war. The Khmers capture Vijaya (*OTL Binh Dinh, Vietnam), again vassalizing their Cham rivals.


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